Tag Archives: ubuntu

UBUNTU

11 Feb

“Humanity to others”

“I am what I am because of who we all are”

These are the meanings of Ubuntu in an ancient African language. But as an operating system, Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system and distributed as free and open source software, using its own desktop environment,freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see fit.

  • Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the “enterprise edition”, we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms.
  • Ubuntu includes the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the Free Software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable by as many people as possible.
  • Ubuntu is shipped in stable and regular release cycles; a new release will be shipped every six months. You can use the current stable release or the current development release. A release will be supported for 18 months.
  • Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; we encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on.

As we mentioned before Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server use. The current Ubuntu release supports Intel x86 (IBM-compatible PC), AMD64 (Hammer) and PowerPC (Apple iBook and Powerbook, G4 and G5) architectures.

Ubuntu includes more than 1000 pieces of software, starting with the Linux kernel version 2.6 and GNOME 2.30, and covering every standard desktop application from word processing and spreadsheet applications to internet access applications, web server software, email software, programming languages and tools and of course several games.

Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue by selling technical support and services related to Ubuntu, while the operating system itself is entirely free of charge. The Ubuntu project is committed to the principles of free software development; people are encouraged to use free software, improve it, and pass it on.

How It Began?

Linux was already established as an enterprise server platform in 2004. But free software was still not a part of everyday life for most computer users. That’s why Mark Shuttleworth gathered a small team of developers from one of the most established Linux projects – Debian – and set out to create an easy-to-use Linux desktop, Ubuntu. Ubuntu’s first release was on 20 October 2004. Since then, Canonical has released new versions of Ubuntu every six monthswith commitment to support each release for eighteen months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support (LTS). LTS releases were traditionally supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server.However with the upcoming release of Ubuntu LTS 12.04, desktop support is to be extended to a period of five years (April 2017) for LTS releases. On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for 3rd party cloud management platforms, such as for those used at Amazon EC2. The latest release is Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot), released on 13 October 2011.Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that by Ubuntu 14.04, Ubuntu will support smartphones, tablets, TVs and smart screens.On 9 January 2012, Canonical announcedUbuntu TV at the Consumer Electronics Show.

Properties

The vision for Ubuntu is part social and part economic: free software, available free of charge to everybody on the same terms, and funded through a portfolio of services provided by Canonical.

Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice (OpenOffice in versions prior to 11.04), Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird (Evolution in versions prior to 11.10),Empathy (Pidgin in versions before 9.10), Transmission, GIMP (in versions prior to 10.04), and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Additional software that is not installed by default can be downloaded and installed using the Ubuntu Software Center or the package manager Synaptic, which come pre-installed in versions prior to 11.10. Ubuntu allows networking ports to be closed using its firewall, with customized port selection available. End-users can install Gufw (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) and keep it enabled.GNOME (the former default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages.[31] Ubuntu can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox).

What Your System Needs?

Current Minimum Requirements Server Desktop
Processor (x86) with the i686 instruction set 300 MHz 700 MHz
Memory (RAM) 128 MB (128 × 10242 bytes) 384 MB (384 × 10242 bytes)
Hard Drive (free space) 1 GB (1 × 10003 bytes) 5 GB (5 × 10003 bytes)
Monitor Resolution 640×480 1024×768

How To Install Ubuntu?

You can download Ubuntu from www.ubuntu.com

Below, you can find detailed information about installing.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fiVZhnTCZOs

 

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GNOME Project

1 Feb

GNOME( GNU Network Object Model Enviroment), as part of GNU Project, is a desktop enviroment and graphical user interface runs on top of an operating system which is especially Unix-like systems.


The Project includes creating development frameworks, selecting application sofware for the desktop, and working on the programs that manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management.GNOME was started in August 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment andapplications for it. It was founded in part because KDE, an already existing free software desktop environment, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which at the time used a proprietary software license. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License(GPL) for its applications.

The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001. De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (laterXimian) in 1999 in Massachusetts. The company developed GNOME’s infrastructure and applications, and in 2003 was purchased by Novell

GNOME 2 (the previous major release) was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 used Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.

GNOME 3.0 was released on April 6, 2011.It was announced at the July 2008 GUADEC conference in Istanbul. The code name ToPaZ (standing for Three Point Zero) was introduced around 2005 and for a long time was only a playground for vague ideas. Quite a few mock-ups were created as part of several ToPaZ brainstorming processes.

Though the philosophy around GNOME mandates that changes are incremental, the desktop received a major overhaul with the GNOME Shell.

What is GNOME Shell?

GNOME Shell is the core user interface of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3. It provides basic functionality like switching between windows and launching applications. It replaces GNOME Panel and other software components from GNOME 2 to offer a user experience that breaks from the previous model ofdesktop metaphor, used in earlier versions of GNOME.

The functionality of GNOME Shell can be changed with extensions, which could be written in JavaScript.

The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work” (see KISS principle). The other aims of the project are:

  • Freedom — to create a desktop environment with readily-available source code for re-use under a free software license.
  • Accessibility — to ensure the desktop can be used by anyone, regardless of technical skill or physical circumstances.
  • Internationalization and localization — to make the desktop available in many languages. At the moment, GNOME is being translated to 175 languages.
  • Developer-friendliness — to ensure ease of writing software that integrates smoothly with the desktop, and allow developers a free choice of programming language.
  • Organization — to adhere to a regular release cycle and maintain a disciplined community structure.
  • Support — to ensure backing from other institutions beyond the GNOME community.

Source:

Gnome.org

wikipedia.org