Tag Archives: GNU Project

GNOME Project

1 Feb

GNOME( GNU Network Object Model Enviroment), as part of GNU Project, is a desktop enviroment and graphical user interface runs on top of an operating system which is especially Unix-like systems.


The Project includes creating development frameworks, selecting application sofware for the desktop, and working on the programs that manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management.GNOME was started in August 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment andapplications for it. It was founded in part because KDE, an already existing free software desktop environment, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which at the time used a proprietary software license. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License(GPL) for its applications.

The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001. De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (laterXimian) in 1999 in Massachusetts. The company developed GNOME’s infrastructure and applications, and in 2003 was purchased by Novell

GNOME 2 (the previous major release) was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 used Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.

GNOME 3.0 was released on April 6, 2011.It was announced at the July 2008 GUADEC conference in Istanbul. The code name ToPaZ (standing for Three Point Zero) was introduced around 2005 and for a long time was only a playground for vague ideas. Quite a few mock-ups were created as part of several ToPaZ brainstorming processes.

Though the philosophy around GNOME mandates that changes are incremental, the desktop received a major overhaul with the GNOME Shell.

What is GNOME Shell?

GNOME Shell is the core user interface of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3. It provides basic functionality like switching between windows and launching applications. It replaces GNOME Panel and other software components from GNOME 2 to offer a user experience that breaks from the previous model ofdesktop metaphor, used in earlier versions of GNOME.

The functionality of GNOME Shell can be changed with extensions, which could be written in JavaScript.

The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work” (see KISS principle). The other aims of the project are:

  • Freedom — to create a desktop environment with readily-available source code for re-use under a free software license.
  • Accessibility — to ensure the desktop can be used by anyone, regardless of technical skill or physical circumstances.
  • Internationalization and localization — to make the desktop available in many languages. At the moment, GNOME is being translated to 175 languages.
  • Developer-friendliness — to ensure ease of writing software that integrates smoothly with the desktop, and allow developers a free choice of programming language.
  • Organization — to adhere to a regular release cycle and maintain a disciplined community structure.
  • Support — to ensure backing from other institutions beyond the GNOME community.

Source:

Gnome.org

wikipedia.org

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GNU Project

24 Jan

“The whole GNU project is really one big hack, its one big act of subversive playful cleverness to change society for the better, because I am only interested in changing society for the better, but in a clever way.” Richard Stallman

GNU  is a computer operating system developed by the GNU Project. The GNU Project is a free software mass corperation Project, announced on September  27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT. GNU’s initiative is ‘GNU is not Unix’. It was gave the name because of it’s design seem likes Unix but it is free software and does not cover  any Unix codes. 

Up until now, there is no accomplished GNU system. It’s affidavit  kernel is GNU Hurd. While GNU Hurd was developing, it has some license problems and some structural changes was applied. Later, Linux step in and a lot of GNU users migrated Linux kernel. GNU assists another softwares like Xorg or TeX.

GNU sytem’s primal contents are GNU Compiler Collection(GCC), GNU Biary Utilities (Binutils), GNU C library (glibc) and Coreutils. It uses Xorg for visuality andı t uses TeX for orthography. All GNU softwares are not compatible with GNU Hurd kernel.

Users who use Linux kernel says Linux their system but GNU Project suggests GNU/Linux. This discussion continues for a long times.

The GNU Public License (GPL), the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) were written for GNU but they are used by many unrelated projects.

GNU General Public License(GPL)

GNU GPL or just GPL is an free software license which use a lot of areas. It was written for GNU Project by R. Stallman. Third and last version was written FSF and Eben Moglen. This license’s version of current published by FSF on June 2007.

GNU GPL is the most common example in copyleft licences. At the present day millions of application softwares uses it.

GNU has four kinds of freedom for the software

  • Freedom to run the program
  • Freedom to access the code
  • Freedom to redistribute the program to anyone
  • Freedom to improve the software

    Advantages of GNU

  • Users know that software have it’s inside what.
  • The software uses lots of people so the mistakes are founded and the problems are solved easily.
  • Users are free to change somethings in software. Unless  they can do that, they can find the software’s right version in the internet.
  •  Anyone can not steal developers’ codes.
  • The software’s quality can increase because of a lot of people use and change the software.

Posted by peacenlily