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11 Feb

“Humanity to others”

“I am what I am because of who we all are”

These are the meanings of Ubuntu in an ancient African language. But as an operating system, Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system and distributed as free and open source software, using its own desktop environment,freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see fit.

  • Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the “enterprise edition”, we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms.
  • Ubuntu includes the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the Free Software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable by as many people as possible.
  • Ubuntu is shipped in stable and regular release cycles; a new release will be shipped every six months. You can use the current stable release or the current development release. A release will be supported for 18 months.
  • Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; we encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on.

As we mentioned before Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server use. The current Ubuntu release supports Intel x86 (IBM-compatible PC), AMD64 (Hammer) and PowerPC (Apple iBook and Powerbook, G4 and G5) architectures.

Ubuntu includes more than 1000 pieces of software, starting with the Linux kernel version 2.6 and GNOME 2.30, and covering every standard desktop application from word processing and spreadsheet applications to internet access applications, web server software, email software, programming languages and tools and of course several games.

Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue by selling technical support and services related to Ubuntu, while the operating system itself is entirely free of charge. The Ubuntu project is committed to the principles of free software development; people are encouraged to use free software, improve it, and pass it on.

How It Began?

Linux was already established as an enterprise server platform in 2004. But free software was still not a part of everyday life for most computer users. That’s why Mark Shuttleworth gathered a small team of developers from one of the most established Linux projects – Debian – and set out to create an easy-to-use Linux desktop, Ubuntu. Ubuntu’s first release was on 20 October 2004. Since then, Canonical has released new versions of Ubuntu every six monthswith commitment to support each release for eighteen months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support (LTS). LTS releases were traditionally supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server.However with the upcoming release of Ubuntu LTS 12.04, desktop support is to be extended to a period of five years (April 2017) for LTS releases. On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for 3rd party cloud management platforms, such as for those used at Amazon EC2. The latest release is Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot), released on 13 October 2011.Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that by Ubuntu 14.04, Ubuntu will support smartphones, tablets, TVs and smart screens.On 9 January 2012, Canonical announcedUbuntu TV at the Consumer Electronics Show.


The vision for Ubuntu is part social and part economic: free software, available free of charge to everybody on the same terms, and funded through a portfolio of services provided by Canonical.

Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice (OpenOffice in versions prior to 11.04), Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird (Evolution in versions prior to 11.10),Empathy (Pidgin in versions before 9.10), Transmission, GIMP (in versions prior to 10.04), and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Additional software that is not installed by default can be downloaded and installed using the Ubuntu Software Center or the package manager Synaptic, which come pre-installed in versions prior to 11.10. Ubuntu allows networking ports to be closed using its firewall, with customized port selection available. End-users can install Gufw (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) and keep it enabled.GNOME (the former default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages.[31] Ubuntu can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox).

What Your System Needs?

Current Minimum Requirements Server Desktop
Processor (x86) with the i686 instruction set 300 MHz 700 MHz
Memory (RAM) 128 MB (128 × 10242 bytes) 384 MB (384 × 10242 bytes)
Hard Drive (free space) 1 GB (1 × 10003 bytes) 5 GB (5 × 10003 bytes)
Monitor Resolution 640×480 1024×768

How To Install Ubuntu?

You can download Ubuntu from

Below, you can find detailed information about installing.


GNOME Project

1 Feb

GNOME( GNU Network Object Model Enviroment), as part of GNU Project, is a desktop enviroment and graphical user interface runs on top of an operating system which is especially Unix-like systems.

The Project includes creating development frameworks, selecting application sofware for the desktop, and working on the programs that manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management.GNOME was started in August 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment andapplications for it. It was founded in part because KDE, an already existing free software desktop environment, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which at the time used a proprietary software license. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License(GPL) for its applications.

The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001. De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (laterXimian) in 1999 in Massachusetts. The company developed GNOME’s infrastructure and applications, and in 2003 was purchased by Novell

GNOME 2 (the previous major release) was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 used Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.

GNOME 3.0 was released on April 6, 2011.It was announced at the July 2008 GUADEC conference in Istanbul. The code name ToPaZ (standing for Three Point Zero) was introduced around 2005 and for a long time was only a playground for vague ideas. Quite a few mock-ups were created as part of several ToPaZ brainstorming processes.

Though the philosophy around GNOME mandates that changes are incremental, the desktop received a major overhaul with the GNOME Shell.

What is GNOME Shell?

GNOME Shell is the core user interface of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3. It provides basic functionality like switching between windows and launching applications. It replaces GNOME Panel and other software components from GNOME 2 to offer a user experience that breaks from the previous model ofdesktop metaphor, used in earlier versions of GNOME.

The functionality of GNOME Shell can be changed with extensions, which could be written in JavaScript.

The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work” (see KISS principle). The other aims of the project are:

  • Freedom — to create a desktop environment with readily-available source code for re-use under a free software license.
  • Accessibility — to ensure the desktop can be used by anyone, regardless of technical skill or physical circumstances.
  • Internationalization and localization — to make the desktop available in many languages. At the moment, GNOME is being translated to 175 languages.
  • Developer-friendliness — to ensure ease of writing software that integrates smoothly with the desktop, and allow developers a free choice of programming language.
  • Organization — to adhere to a regular release cycle and maintain a disciplined community structure.
  • Support — to ensure backing from other institutions beyond the GNOME community.


A Revolution In Software World – FOSS (Free and Open Source Software)

30 Jan

First Phase – The Dark Age/Closed Source Companies

Between 1960 – 1970’s there were no open source software program in the cyber world. Close source companies had been ruling the software world. What we aim to do in this artical is to show you  some of the important, mainframe operating systems in these years.

On April 7, 1964 IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360. Sold between 1964 and 1978, it was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. The operating system used microcode to implement the instruction set, which featured 8-bit byte addressing and binary, decimal and floating-point calculations. The 360s were extremely successful in the market, allowing customers to purchase a smaller system with the knowledge they would always be able to migrate upward if their needs grew, without reprogramming of application software.

The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total OPerating System) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.

RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (“DEC”), (now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers. The first version of RSTS (RSTS-11, Version 1) was implemented in 1970 by DEC software engineers that developed the TSS-8 time-sharing operating system for the PDP-8. The last version of RSTS (RSTS/E, Version 10.1) was released in September 1992. RSTS-11 and RSTS/E are usually referred to just as “RSTS” and this article will generally use the shorter form.

General Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS) is a family of operating systems oriented toward mainframe computers. The original version of GCOS was developed by General Electric from 1962; originally called GECOS (the General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor). The operating system is still used today in its most recent version (GCOS on servers and mainframes produced by Honeywell and Groupe Bull, primarily through emulation, to provide continuity with legacy mainframe environments.
Between 1960-1970’s Early operating systems were very diverse, with each vendor or customer producing one or more operating systems specific to their particular mainframe computer. Every operating system, even from the same vendor, could have radically different models of commands, operating procedures, and such facilities as debugging aids. Typically, each time the manufacturer brought out a new machine, there would be a new operating system, and most applications would have to be manually adjusted, recompiled, and retested.

The Second Phase – The Unix Act

A revolutionary alteration occured in software history in 1970. Peter Neumann coined the project name Unics (Uniplexed Information and Computing Service) as a wordplay on Multics, (Multiplexing Information and Computer Services).Unics could eventually support multiple simultaneous users.
In 1974, an American multinational telecommunications corporation (AT&T) released Unix,a multitasking, multiuser computer operating system, free of charge.

The Open Group, an industry standards union owns the UNIX trademark. Only systems fully compliant with and certified according to the Single UNIX Specification are qualified to use the trademark. However, the term Unix is often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system.

The Third Phase- Bill Gates’ Open Letter To Hobbyists

The Open Letter to Hobbyists was an open letter written by Bill Gates, to early personal computer hobbyists. In his letter, Gates expresses dismay at the rampant copyright infringement taking place in the hobbyist community, particularly with regard to his company’s software. In his letter Gates asserted that “software piracy” was a crime and would contribute to the downfall of quality software.

Bill Gates,  co-founder of Microsoft , complaints in his letter about computer hobbyists “stealing software” by copying and distributing Microsoft’s version of BASIC. His accusation is quite direct. He says: ” As the majority of hobbyists must be aware, most of you steal your software”

In the same letter he adds; “Who can afford to do professional work for nothing? What hobbyist can put 3-man years into programming, finding all bugs, documenting his product and distribute for free?” 

The answers is quite obvious:


Through the open source logic and its communities, professional and hobbyist developers spend countless hours jointly programming, finding all bugs, documenting products which belong to everyone and are distributed for free.

Even back then in 1976, there was a growing community of programmers eager to share their code with each other for free and benefit from the work of others as others benefit from theirs.

You can read the whole letter in here.

The Fourth Phase-  A milestone / The Xerox and  R. Stallman

It all started with a paper jam. It was 1980 and the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT had received an elegant new printer from Xerox. The printer, however, had an unfortunate tendency to jam, causing print jobs to pile up and nothing to get printed until someone happened to notice and fix the jam. For Richard Stallman, one of the programmers at the AI Lab, this wasn’t such a big deal. With their previous printer, Stallman had simply changed the printer driver to detect whether the printer was jammed and, if it was, to notify anyone who had sent it a print job. “If you got that message, you couldn’t assume somebody else would fix it,” Stallman later recalled. “You had to go to the printer. A minute or two after the printer got in trouble, the two or three people who got messages arrive to fix the machine. Of those two or three people, one of them, at least, would usually know how to fix the problem.” But the Xerox printer was different: Xerox hadn’t provided the lab with the source code to their printer drivers.

There was no way for Stallman to add this new functionality to the driver. When Stallman asked Xerox for the code, they refused to provide it, insisting that it was an important trade secret for their business. And when Stallman found a student at Carnegie Mellon who had been given access to the software, that student also refused to provide a copy, saying he’d signed a contract with Xerox not to share it. Stallman was outraged. Computer software was supposed to be a tool to serve people; that’s why he and his labmates spent their time writing software. And yet, through a combination of greed and legal restrictions, people were forced to suffer because they were prevented from improving these tools.Stallman wanted to ensure no one else would be forced to suffer in this way; he wanted to build a computer system based around principles of freedom. In 1984 he quit his job and announced the GNU project.

The Fifth Phase- The GNU Manifesto

The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman and published in March 1985 in Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Software Tools as an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project, and to call for participation and support. It is held in high regard within the free software movement as a fundamental philosophical source. The full text is included with GNU software such as Emacs, and is available on the web.

The GNU Manifesto begins by outlining the goal of the project GNU, which stands for GNU’s Not Unix. The current contents of GNU at the time of writing are then described and detailed. Richard Stallman then goes into an explanation of why it is important that they complete this project. The reason he explains is based on Unix becoming a proprietary software. It then explains how people can contribute to the project, and also why computer users will benefit from the project. A large part of the GNU Manifesto is also focused on rebutting possible objections to GNU’s goals. Objections described here include the programmer’s need to make a living, the issue of advertising/distributing free software, and the perceived need for monetary incentive. Most of this text explains how the free software philosophy works, and why it would be a good choice for the technology industry to follow.

You can read the whole manifesto in here

The Sixth Phase- Free Software Foundation (FSF)

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, a copyleft-based movement which aims to promote the universal freedom to create, distribute and modify computer software.

The free software movement was started in 1983 by computer scientist Richard M. Stallman, when he launched a project called GNU, which stands for “GNU is Not UNIX” There are now many variants or ‘distributions’ of this GNU operating system using the kernel Linux. GNU/Linux distributions that are 100% free software; in other words, entirely freedom-respecting., to provide a replacement for the UNIX operating system—a replacement that would respect the freedoms of those using it. Then in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation, a nonprofit with the mission of advocating and educating on behalf of computer users around the world.The FSF is incorporated in Massachusetts, USA.

The Seventh Phase-The Linux Act 

In the year 1991 Linus Tornvalds released Linux Kernel as freel modifiale code.The Linux kernel is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2), and is developed by contributors worldwide.  Linux rapidly accumulated developers and users who adapted code from other free software projects for use with the new operating system.  The Linux kernel has received contributions from thousands of programmers. Many Linux distributions have been released based upon the Linux kernel.

The Eight Base- Liberty or Death
By 1990, it was becoming apparent that a less restrictive license would be strategically useful for the C library and for software libraries that essentially did the job of existing proprietary ones; when version 2 of the GPL (GPLv2) was released in June 1991, therefore, a second license — the Library General Public License — was introduced at the same time and numbered with version 2 to show that both were complementary. The version numbers diverged in 1999 when version 2.1 of the LGPL was released, which renamed it the GNU Lesser General Public License to reflect its place in the philosophy.
According to Richard Stallman, the major change in GPLv2 was the “Liberty or Death” clause. By this he means that, if somebody has restrictions imposed that prevent him or her from distributing GPL-covered software in a way that respects other users’  freedom (for example, if a legal ruling states that he or she can only distribute the software in binary form), he or she cannot distribute it at all. The hope is, that this will make it less tempting for companies to use patent threats to require a fee from the free software developers.
The Ninth Base-VA Linux Founded
VA Research was founded in November 1993 by Stanford graduate student Larry Augustin and James Vera. Augustin was a Stanford colleague of Jerry Yang and David Filo, the founders of Yahoo. VA Research built and sold personal computer systems with the Linux operating system installed, as an alternative to more expensive Unix workstations available at the time. Atthe time they started operations,  they were one of the first computer vendors to offer Linux as a pre-installed operating system. VA began porting Linux to the new IA-64 processor architecture in earnest. VA had also begun to make plans to change its name to VA Linux Systems and conduct an initial public offering of its stock.
The Tenth Base-The Apache Plan
The Apache Software Foundation is a decentralized community of developers. The software they produce is distributed under the terms of theApache License and is therefore free and open source software (FOSS)Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. The application is available for a wide variety of operating systems, including Unix, FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Novell NetWare, AmigaOS, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, OS/2, TPF, and eComStation. Released under the Apache License, Apache is open-source software. Apache was originally based on NCSA HTTPd code. The NCSA code has since been removed from Apache, due to a rewrite. Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular HTTP server software in use. As of May 2011 Apache was estimated to serve 63% of allwebsites and 66% of the million busiest.
The Eleventh Phase-The Shot Heard Round The World
In 1997, Eric Raymond released the book, The Cathedral and The Bazaar on why the Linux model works.  The essay’s central thesis is Raymond’s proposition that “given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow” (which he terms Linus’ Law): the more widely available the source code is for public testing, scrutiny, and experimentation, the more rapidly all forms of bugs will be discovered. In contrast, Raymond claims that an inordinate amount of time and energy must be spent hunting for bugs in the Cathedral model, since the working version of the code is available only to a few developers.
You can find a Pdf  version of the book at the “Pdf” category in this blog.

The Twelfth Phase- Open Source Revolution

In 1998, Christine Peterson and a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open source software (OSS) as an expression which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world. Software developers may want to publish their software with an open source license, so that anybody may also develop the same software or understand its internal functioning.

The Thirteenth Phase-The Hallowen Papers

The first Halloween document, requested by senior vice-president James Allchin for the attention of senior vice-president Paul Maritz and written by Microsoft program manager Vinod Valloppillil, was leaked to Eric Raymond in October 1998, who immediately published an annotated version on his web site. The document contained references to a second memorandum specifically dealing with Linux, and that document, authored by Vinod Valloppillil and Josh Cohen at Microsoft, was also obtained, annotated and published by Raymond. Microsoft has since admitted the documents’ authenticity.

The Fourteenth Phase-The Open Source Revolution

This could be one war that will maybe never end. One that always looks at providing software solutions to business enterprises at the lowest costs possible or at no cost at all — Open Source Software; and there is another which promises the provision of the best-in-the-business software solutions to large organizations and also the promise of a brand name, but at a higher cost (which is considered worth-it, by many firms) – Proprietary Software.

This trend in turn has led to a new debate, says 451 Group analyst Jay Lyman.

“Today’s open source vs. proprietary software debates typically center not on which model is better, as I think there is some general agreement that both have their place,” he says. “Instead, today’s discussion centers on what is open source or not.”

Copyleft, All Wrongs Reversed!

25 Jan

Copyleft is a play on the word copyright and a specific condition that the user will be able to copy it freely while distributing software, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others as long as the redistributed software is passed along with the copyleft stipulation too.The principle in copyleft is that, one benefits freely from the work of others but any modifications one makes must be released under agreeable terms. Under fair use, however, the copyleft license may be superseded, just like regular copyrights. Therefore, any person utilizing a copyleft-licensed source for their own work is free to choose any other license provided according to the fair use standard. Another characteristic of copyleft is that, it reflects the belief that freer redistribution and modification of software would encourage users to make improvements to it.


Several types of open source software licenses are distinguished as having copyleft elements. The difference between the open source movement and the free software movement hinges on the debate over whether derived works should be subject to the same type of licenses as the works they were derived from, a key component of the copyleft ideology.  To the extent that a copyleft license achieves the goals of this ideology, a license is labeled as strong or weak copyleft.  The GNU General Public License is considered an example of the former, and the Mozilla Public License an example of the latter.

Copyleft licenses may be distinguished as full or partial copyleft, depending on how much of a work is covered by the license, and to what extent.


Some copyleft licenses are called share-alike copyleft. The Share Alike aspect requires all offshoots of a work to be licensed under the same (or a compatible) license as the original.  These licenses are sometimes defined as “some rights reserved,” as opposed to the “all rights reserved” of copyright and the “all wrongs reversed” of copyleft.

How It All Began?

Tiny BASIC , a modified version of Microsoft’s (then “Micro-Soft”) BASIC that could run on 2 to 3 kilobytes of memory, famous for first prompting an irate letter from Bill Gates which reflects many of the same concerns that intellectual property owners express today in light of easy, digital file sharing. In a pattern that reflected open source values before “open source” was a thing, Tiny BASIC was then modified by Li-Chen Wang for the Intel 8080 microprocessor, and subsequently by hobbyist Roger Rauskolb who first added a “copyleft” notice to the program’s identity disc. Later, programmer Richard Stallman provided a version of a computer program he was working on to a private company and upon requesting the changes made, the company refused. In retaliation, Stallman created the first copyleft license in 1983 which would ultimately become the GNU General Public License  His aim was to develop a complete free operating system.GNU General Public License, a legal construct that included a copyright notice but added to it its terms the freedoms of reuse, modification and reproduction of a work or its derivatives to be kept for everyone.

Common Copylefted Softwares

Mozilla’s Firefox web browser, the Open Officesuite of productivity tools, and the GNU/Linux operating system. In addition to those, the whole Wikipedia websiteis copylefted, including the source code of the operating system that runs the server, the webserver software itself, the programs that create the webpages, and the content of the webpages.

How To Apply Copyleft?

Common practice for using copyleft is to codify the copying terms for a work with a license. Any such license typically gives each person possessing a copy of the work the same freedoms. The freedoms are usually associated with Copyleft are:

  • the freedom to use the work,
  • the freedom to study the work,
  • the freedom to copy and share the work with others,
  • the freedom to modify the work, and the freedom to distribute modified and therefore derivative works.

These freedoms do not ensure that a deriavative work  will be distributed under the same liberal terms. In order for the work to be truly copyleft, the license has to ensurethat the author of a derived work can only distribute such works under the same or equivalent license.

In addition, copyleft licenses address other possible impediments. These include ensuring the rights cannot be later revokedand requiring the work and its derivatives to be provided in a form that facilitates modification. In software, this requires that the source codeof the derived work is made available together with the software itself.

Some laws used for copyleft licenses vary from one country to another, and may also be granted in terms that vary from country to country. For example, in some countries it is acceptable to sell a software product without warranty, in standard GNU GPL, while in most Europeancountries it is not permitted for a software distributor to waiveall warranties regarding a sold product. For this reason the extent of such warranties are specified in most European copyleft licenses. Regarding that, see the European Union Public Licence EUPL, or the CecILL License, a license that allows one to use GNU GPL in combination with a limited warranty

As a conclusion, copyleft contains the normal copyright statement, asserting ownership and identification of the author. However, it then gives away some of the other rights implicit in the normal copyright: it says that not only are you free to redistribute this work, but you are also free to change the work. However, you cannot claim to have written the original work, nor can you claim that these changes were created by someone else. Finally, all derivative works must also be placed under these terms. With computers, copies of a digital work can easily be made and even modified, or distributed by others, the same as the original work. As long as we live in a world with a legal system where legal abstractions such as copyright are necessary, as responsible artists or scientists we will need the formal legal abstractions of copyleft that ensure our freedom and the freedom of others.

The Open-Source Movement

22 Jan

Firstly, we can define open-source as an approach to software development and intellectual property in which program code is available to all participants and can be modified by any of them. Those modifications are then distrubuted back to the community of developers working with the software. In this methodology, licensing serves primarily to disclose the identities of all the participants, documenting the development of the code and the originators of changes enhancements and derivative off-shoots.

From a high level perspective, open source is a license (or lack of license!) that allows end users to first obtain a product or creation for free, and second to modify it as they see fit without restriction. What this does is increase distribution and improves the product over time. Keep in mind that this is quite a general definition and that open source resources can be licensed in a variety of ways – this to be covered shortly.

For the most part the open-source technologies and products existing or under development today are not primarily unique or groung breaking in functionality. Instead they are alternatives to commercialy well-established software, distinguished more by the way they are owned operated and further developed.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two different groups were establishing the roots of the current open source software movement.

* The Computer Science Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California at Berkeley was improving the Unix system, and developing many applications which quickly became “BSD Unix”. These efforts were funded mainly by DARPA contracts, and a dense network of Unix hackers around the world helped to debug, maintain and improve the system.

*Richard Stallman, created the GNU project and the Free Software Foundation. Different from Unix System, The GNU was aimed to create a free operating system.This specific license allowed users to not only modify, but also redistribute people’s own versions of the software. This not only allows, but also requires that anyone operating under the Linux GPL agree to the terms of the original kernel and makes the edit available to everyone. The GNU General Public License (GPL) was one of the open source licenses that served as a prohibitory of control over software codes.

Here is the video which tells about function of Open-Source Movement:


Fullmetallinux Welcomes You!

21 Jan

Anyone can get and modify open source codes! How?

Here, in this very blog you can find out how to do it. Fullmetallinux is a an Open Source Database which has all the information that you want to learn about Open Source and cares to enlighten you about it. In this database, you can also find out how to reach Open Source softwares and particular info about these channels not only with written information, but also with visual elements.
Fullmetallinux, is for anyone who wants to find out how to reach and use the information in a free and clear way.