GNOME( GNU Network Object Model Enviroment), as part of GNU Project, is a desktop enviroment and graphical user interface runs on top of an operating system which is especially Unix-like systems.
The Project includes creating development frameworks, selecting application sofware for the desktop, and working on the programs that manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management.GNOME was started in August 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment andapplications for it. It was founded in part because KDE, an already existing free software desktop environment, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which at the time used a proprietary software license. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License(GPL) for its applications.
The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001. De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (laterXimian) in 1999 in Massachusetts. The company developed GNOME’s infrastructure and applications, and in 2003 was purchased by Novell
GNOME 2 (the previous major release) was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 used Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.
GNOME 3.0 was released on April 6, 2011.It was announced at the July 2008 GUADEC conference in Istanbul. The code name ToPaZ (standing for Three Point Zero) was introduced around 2005 and for a long time was only a playground for vague ideas. Quite a few mock-ups were created as part of several ToPaZ brainstorming processes.
Though the philosophy around GNOME mandates that changes are incremental, the desktop received a major overhaul with the GNOME Shell.
What is GNOME Shell?
GNOME Shell is the core user interface of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3. It provides basic functionality like switching between windows and launching applications. It replaces GNOME Panel and other software components from GNOME 2 to offer a user experience that breaks from the previous model ofdesktop metaphor, used in earlier versions of GNOME.
The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work” (see KISS principle). The other aims of the project are:
- Freedom — to create a desktop environment with readily-available source code for re-use under a free software license.
- Accessibility — to ensure the desktop can be used by anyone, regardless of technical skill or physical circumstances.
- Internationalization and localization — to make the desktop available in many languages. At the moment, GNOME is being translated to 175 languages.
- Developer-friendliness — to ensure ease of writing software that integrates smoothly with the desktop, and allow developers a free choice of programming language.
- Organization — to adhere to a regular release cycle and maintain a disciplined community structure.
- Support — to ensure backing from other institutions beyond the GNOME community.
It’s name is “Spark”, in recognition of it being the start to an even bigger flame.
The Spark is a modestly-specced enthusiast tablet that’s just been announced, and it’s aimed at those who want to run applications on Linux-based open hardware. The creators say it’s the first tablet to come with Plasma Active pre-installed — an open-source UI intended for use in a variety of touchscreen devices
It sports an open Linux stack on unlocked hardware and comes with an open content and services market. The user experience is, Plasma Active and it will be available to the general public.
Like the Kindle Fire, the Spark is a seven-inch capacitive tablet running on a Cortex-A9 processor. However, instead of a dual-core processor, the Spark offers Amlogic’s single-core AML8726-M. The 1GHz system on chip (SoC) includes a Mali-400 graphics processing unit (GPU) and full 1080p video decoding, as detailed on this Amlogic AML8726-M product page.
- 1 GHz ARMv7 (Cortex A9) processor with Mali-400 GPU
- 7″, 800 x 480, 5-point multi-touch capacitive display
- 512 MB RAM, 4 GB Flash, micro-sd slot
- WiFi and 3G
- 1080p HDMI output
- 335 grams
KDE Plasma Active, a system you may well have never heard of before, running on top of a completely open source Linux build. Have a peek at some hands-on with Plasma Active to get an idea of what the software will hold:
The Spark is quite the niche product, at least in its current form. Fans of open source software commenting on the announcement post seem quite excited about its release, but at the moment, I personally don’t see the Spark getting much interest outside that group of users. But we’ll keep an eye on its development, and see how it progresses. At the very least, it’s exciting to see the efforts of a small community of enthusiasts result in a decent-looking device.
The Spark tablet will cost users €200, or approximately $265 USD, and should be available for purchase soon.
Tech Junkies bizlere son robot projelerini ve kendi açık kaynak robot kontrol sistemimizi nasıl kullanabileceğimizi gururla sunuyor. Tech Junkies, bir süredir etkileyici teknik ürünler üretiyor ve bu fikir daha önceden üretmiş oldukları Arduino ve Netduino isimli robotlarının bileşenlerini başarılı bir şekilde yeni işlerine uygulamaları sonucu ortaya çıkmış bulunmakta.
Tech Junkies’den Eric Barch, robotun yapımı ve aldığı sonuçlarla ilgili şu bilgileri veriyor: “Geçen birkaç ayda Arduino/Netduino robot kontrol sistemi hakkında birkaç fikir üzerinde yoğunlaşmıştım. Robotlarımı bir Android telefondan, bilgisayardan ya da başka herhangi bir etkin WİFİ aygıtından kontrol etmek istediğimi biliyordum. Ayrıca sistemin küçük, basit ama aynı zamanda güçlü ve geliştirilebilir olmasını istediğimi biliyordum. Denetim birimi için bir Arduino veya Netduino Plus ile devam etmemin sebebi düşük fiyat, programlama kolaylığı ve tümleşik eternet portuydu. Yerleşik eterneti kablosuz yönlendirici ile eşleştirdim ve böylece bilgiyi robota kablosuz bir şekilde bağladım ve ilettim. Bu sistemle oluşturduğumuz ilk robotumuzla ilgili sonuç ortada. Robotun ismi ise Mantis.”
Robot şuan piyasaya sürülmüş durumda ve GoogleCode’da mevcut. Google Code sayfasında aynı zamanda Arduino, Netdino ve Python kodu kendi robot kontrol sisteminiz için kullanımınıza sunulmuş durumda. Tech Junkies, 7. Bölümde sistemin nasıl bir araya getirildiği, kodun nasıl çalıştığı ve Robot Mantis ile ilgili başarılı bir genel bakış sunuyor.
The Tech Junkies proudly shows us the latest robot project and how we can built our own open source robot control system!
The tech junkies have been producing impressive tech goods for a while. And this idea has shaped from using the components on new works with a succesfull modification of the robots, named “arduino” and “netdino” they have produced before.
“I’ve been playing around with some ideas for an Arduino/Netduino robot control system the past few months. I knew that I wanted to be able to control my robots from an Android phone, PC, or any other WiFi enabled device. I also knew that I wanted the system to be small and simplistic, but also powerful and extensible. The reason I went with an Arduino (Ethernet Pro) or a Netduino Plus for the controller was the low cost, ease of programming, and the embedded ethernet port. I coupled the onboard ethernet with a wireless router so that I could connect and transmit data to the robot wirelessly. Here are the results of our first robot build with this system. The robot was affectionately named Mantis.”
– Eric Barch, Crew of Tech Junkies
It is now in the market for free and available on Google Code. On the Google Code page you can also find the Arduino, Netduino, and Python code for use on your own robot control system. Episode #7 of The Tech Junkies gives a good overview of how the system is put together, how the code works, and a closer look at the Mantis robot:
here is the basic layout of the wiring for a basic robot setup using this system:
also thanks to T.k. Hareendran
Red Hat is one of the biggest linux based and open source software company in the world. Red Hat Inc. is the first company which shows us how to earn money with open source systems
Red Hat creates, maintains, and contributes to many free software projects and has also acquired several proprietary software packages and released their source code under mostly GNU GPL while holding copyright under single commercial entity and selling looser licenses.
Red Hat partly operates on a professional open-source business model based on open code, development within a community, professional quality assurance, and subscription-based customer support. They produce open-source code, so more programmers can make further adaptations and improvements.
Red Hat Enterprise (RHEL)
Red Hat Enterprise (RHEL) is a Linux based operating system.With this system, Red Hat targeted toward the business market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86, x86-64, Itanium, PowerPC and IBM System Z, and desktop versions for x86 and x86-64. All of Red Hat’s official support and training and the Red Hat Certification Program center around the Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is often abbreviated to RHEL, although this is not an official designation.
Software in RHEL 5 distribution includes:
- Linux kernel 2.6.18
- Apache 2.2.3
- MySQL 5.0.22
- PHP 5.1.6
- PostgreSQL 8.1.4
Key features, themes, and objectives of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, in a talk delivered by Engineering Vice President Tim Burke. Find out what’s new, what’s improved, and what is most important in the newest release of the Red Hat operating system.
“To kind of explain what Linux is, you have to explain what an operating system is. And the thing about an operating system is that you’re never ever supposed to see it. Because nobody really uses an operating system; people use programs on their computer. And the only mission in life of an operating system is to help those programs run. So an operating system never does anything on its own; it’s only waiting for the programs to ask for certain resources, or ask for a certain file on the disk, or ask to connect to the outside world. And then the operating system steps in and tries to make it easy for people to write programs.”
Torvalds was born in 1969 and grew up in Helsinki. At the age of 10 he began to dabble in computer programming on his grandfather’s Commodore VIC-20. By the time he reached college, Torvalds considered himself an accomplished enough programmer to take on the Herculean task of creating an alternate operating system for his new PC. Once he had completed a rough version of Linux, he posted a message on the Internet to alert other PC users to his new system. He made the software available for free downloading, and, as was a common practice among software developers at the time, he released the source code, which meant that anyone with knowledge of computer programming could modify Linux to suit their own purposes. Linux soon had a following of enthusiastic supporters who, because they had access to the source code, were able to help Torvalds retool and refine the software.
To explain why hackers would work together without pay to make something like Linux, Torvalds pens “Linus’s Law”. With tongue somewhat in cheek, Linus’s Law posits progress and evolution as upward motion along a hierarchy of motivations: from survival, to social life, to entertainment. What makes hackers tick, according to Torvalds, is this last and most sublime motivation. By entertainment, he’s not thinking of games so much as “the mental gymnastics involved in trying to explain the universe”, whether you’re Einstein, an artist or a hacker. Coding an operating system is, after all, a great deal like explaining the universe because one codifies the parameters and elemental models of everything that can happen. Torvalds means entertainment to encompass the passion and playfulness of activities intrinsically interesting and challenging—stuff we stay up late working on because we love doing it, not because of a deadline. (The Hacker Ethic)
“This primary question of life organization is immensely important. If making money is the main goal, a person can often forget what his or her true interests are or how he or she wants to deserve recognition from others. It is much more difficult to add on other values to a life that started out with just making money in mind than it is to make some personally interesting endeavor financially possible or even profitable.” Pekka Himanen
Pekka Himanen is a Finnish Philosopher, he is one of the internationally best-known researchers of the information age, whose works on the subject have been published in 20 languages from Asia to America.
As a sign of his impact, Himanen’s work has been recognized with several awards, such as the World Economic Forum’s respected Global Leader for Tomorrow Award in 2003 and his selection of being one of the 200 Young Global Leaders in 2005. Himanen has also had an important role in the actual making of policy. He has advised leading global organizations and corporations. In Finland, Prof. Himanen has recently finished the preparation of a new information society strategy for the Finnish Parliament’s Committee for the Future and a national innovation strategy for the Finnish Technology Industry.
Currently, Himanen works as a Principal Scientist at Technology, where he leads a research project on global network society. He is also a Professor of Creative Economy at the University of Art and Design Helsinki, and has been a Visiting Professor at the Oxford Internet Instute from September 2005 to July 2006.